Grappling with Hoops of Steel

Joanna here, talkingRemoir Girl_with_a_Hoop 1885 about the history of hoop chasing and the many misconceptions we nourish about this.
Right off, let me explain how chasing or bowling or driving or rolling or trundling a hoop came about.

About seven minutes after the invention of the wheel, some bright young lad standing in the back of the cave noticed you could roll the thing and chase after it.  It probably took a half hour's experimentation to discoveNeandertal wikir you could roll it even better by knocking at it with a short stick.  You could make it go fast or slow, turn, even spin backwards.  A new human activity — part sport, part contest, part art, part meditation — was born. 

It proved amazingly popular.  There's something in the human race that wants to chase a rolling object.  We're like golden labs. 

I want to claim Classical sources for my subject.  And, indeed, the Classical Greeks were great hoop trundlers. 

Oh.  Let me digress.  The word 'trundle', which we'd use in 1800 when our characters are talking about rolling a hoop, means 'to push or propel on wheels or rollers. As in,

"I doubt if Emerson could trundle a wheelbarrow through the streets."

That is a quote from the redoubtable Thoreau where he is very likely criticizing Emerson. 

Trundle also means 'to spin or twirl' and you can see how that would neatly fit in with what we do to hoops.
Like so many of our most robust words, 'trundle' comes to us from Middle English where 'trendle' meant 'wheel'.  We use the word trundle, nowadays, mostly in the concept of 'trundle bed' — which is a little bed with wheels that goes under the main bed for anyone who may not happen to know this. 

Ganymede with cock louvre smudged Back to the Greeks. 

Yes.  They rolled hoops.  We see this represented on vases and bowls and the odd mosaic.  One common representation of boy-with-a-hoop is Ganymede, whom we see over to the left, with hoop and live chicken.  The rooster in this picture is symbolic and represents an appropriate gift from a homosexual lover to the beloved.  It should not be taken as an indication one carried around poultry as part of the sport of  hoop bowlingChild_playing_with_hoops_mosaic C6 wiki detail, in case you were wondering.

To the right we got a boy rolling, not hoops, but wheels in this mosaic of Sixth Century, AD. 

Small wheels are very popular during hoop-time, and make an interesting toy, requiring more skill to guide than the ordinary hoop. To trundle a wheel the boy uses a long stick, one end of which he places under the hub, and with which he both pushes and guides the wheel in a very interesting and skilful manner, as he runs after it.
Outdoor Handy Book  By Daniel "Dan" Carter Beard, 1896

The hoop is apparently the superior instrument for racing, as per this contest in 1807.  Hoop versus wheel.  Do not bet on the wheels.

A wager between Mr. Bennet and Mr. Parkbouse was decided on Friday morning, 1st inst. on the Clapham road, from the third mile stone on the common to the fifth, Mr B. who trundled the hoop, having gained the contest by some distance. We understand another wager, of 200 gs. has been offered by Mr. B. to trundle a hoop for five miles against any man that can be found to run a wheel the like distance.

Breugal children's games detail2 Bruegel, when he paints his Sixteenth Century panorama of children's games, puts the hoop bowlers right up front and center. 

Historically, well into the Twentieth, hoops were made of two materials. 

One sort was forged in a blacksmith's shop from iron.  I imagine the construction was pretty much like that of barrel hoops.  In fact, I suspect a good many of the hoops rolling the streets were popped off a barrel someplace.  Hoops were also similar to the metal rims of wooden wheels — another likely source of hoops for the disenfranchised poor. 

MOLENAER, Jan Miense a quack andhis assistant C17 detail Hoops might have pairs of tin squares nailed to the inside of the circle, that clattered back and forth against each other and jingled as the hoop was rolled.  This goes right into the Twentieth Century.  See it there at the left along with the sarcastic hound and the rack of rats, also in the Bruegel painting above.  (Click on either of these to increase size.)  

Martial, the Classical Roman writer, says, of a similar setup.  "Why do these jingling rings move about upon the rolling wheel? In order that the passers-by may get out of the way of
the hoop."

Myself, I suspect the tin janglers served the same purpose as those playing cards I used to attach to the wheels of my bike.  (With clothespins.  Remember clothespins?) 
They were there to make a nifty racket, and they did.Afonso prince of brazil 1846 detail

The other kind of hoop I said there were two — was made of ash wood, rounded on the outside, carved flat on the inside.  Looks like they were made from a single piece of ash, soaked and shaped, bent and fitted.     

Dorothy Palmer reminisces about life in the 1920s:   

Boys_with_hoops_on_Chesnut_Street Toronto 1922 We also had hoops, which were often old cycle wheels minus the spokes. To be very grand was to have a wooden hoop purchased from Perkins Penny Bazaar in the Market Place at Oakham or a steel hoop with a trundle made by the blacksmith.

The boys in the picture to the right are very obviously using bicycle tires with the spokes removed.

One variation it seems to be Nineteenth Century were hoops with the driving A c19 hoop sketch1 stick fitted permanently.  Maybe it was intended for small children.  A c19 hoop sketch1 detail The idea never really caught on.
A case of 'Not Clear on the Concept'.

In the interests of fairness, I have to add some contemporary anti-hoop propaganda in here.
Cruikshank grievances of london british museum detail

The practice pursued by boys in trundling their hoops on the streets and footpaths has become a dange rous nuisance. The other day a gentleman was riding a rather spirited horse in Macquarie-street when a careless urchin drove his hoop against the animal's legs, when it instantly reared and plunged, and would have thrown its rider had not his good horsemanship enabled him to keep his seat . . . the boys ought to be compelled to quit the public thoroughfares, and to resort to places where no injury could arise from the pursuit of their pastimes.
The Hobart Town Daily Mercury; 18 August 1858

Hoops were the skateboards of their day.

So the burning question of the hour is did girls bowl hoops, or was it only a sport for boys?

Anytime after about 1830, we see girls depicted with a hoop and stick.  An example is the charming Renoir at the top of the page.  In the last half of the Nineteenth Century, hoop rollers are as apt to be girls as boys.  Victorian moralists and physicians considered it wholesome, healthy exercise for young girls.  

Girls to the age of thirteen may be permitted to indulge at pleasure in play and exercise proportionate to their strength, with as little restraint as their brothers.  We would not send them into the cricket ground nor initiate them in at football, because there is a sociality of intercourse in such plays that is not feminine in nature; but we would not preclude them from exercise as strong and as unrestrained merely because it implied an effort of physical power; nor would we shut them out from the boys of their own age who are usually brothers or near relatives on any principle of precocious prudery, so long as such games are not dangerous or indecorous, if they are they are as unfit for the brother as for the sister.
We love to see girls of eleven or twelve trundling a hoop or running a garden-face in rivalry with Tom just returned from Eton.
George Stephen, A Guide to Service: The Governess 1844.

Steinlen, Théophile-Alexandre 1895










But what about in the Regency?  What about the Georgian era? 

I have no evidence one way or the other.  There's no indication girls didn't play with hoops.  But hard proof they did starts emerging in the teens of the Nineteenth Century.  And when it does, it's treated as a commonplace. 

Amusements there are which properly come under the denomination of sports, in which a little girl or boy may partake. The hoop, battledore, drum, kite, bat and ball,etc.
Early education, 1821

. . . and saw, at the farthest end of the terrace, a young girl, of about fifteen, running very fast, with a hoop, which she was keeping up with great dexterity for the amusement of a little boy, who was with her. The governess no sooner saw this, than she went in pursuit of her young ladyships calling after her, in various tones and phrases of reprehension, in French, Italian, and English; and asking, whether this was a becoming employment for a young lady of her age and rank. Heedless of these reproaches, Lady Julia still ran on, away from her governess.
Tales of Fashionable Life: Vivian, Maria Edgeworth, 1812

Whenever the lessons of her childhood had been concluded, she had always been permitted, and even encouraged, to join in many of those games and exercises, that are usually appropriated to the amusement of the other sex. Often has she quitted an abstruse book, or a beautiful drawing, to trundle her hoop, or run races with her playfellow Augustus. And when other girls have trembled under the rod of the dancing master, she has been gaining health and activity together,
Manners: a novel,  Frances Brooke, 1817

I can't end without admitting that long, long ago in the foolishness of youth, I attempted to trundle a hula hoop.  It was not a great success.  Perhaps I just lack the knack, but I think Hula Hoops are too light for the purpose.

The Black HawkI suspect the world would be a better place if kids still bowled hoops through the public streets. 


I wonder —  What 'olde tyme' toys have you played with.  Did you find it a satisfactory experience? 

Some lucky winner from the comments trail will receive an early, fresh-off-the-press copy of my new book, Black Hawk, though they will have to wait for about a month till I get some author copies.



Sipping Tea, Georgian Style


If man has no tea in him, he is incapable of understanding truth and beauty. 
        Japanese Proverb

Joanna here, dipping into the subject how we drink tea, Eighteenth Century style.
Five-Oclock-Tea walker cropped Is there no Latin word for Tea?  Upon my soul, if I had known that I would have let the vulgar stuff alone.
        Hilaire Belloc


No Latin for tea because tea didn't travel the silk roads all the way to the west.  In Roman times, tea was an entirely Chinese secret.  Tea only made it to Europe about 1600, the Dutch and the Portuguese carrying it home along with the other spoils of oriental trade. 

 Galleon wii

It was the Age of Enlightenment. 
The Age of Exploration.  
The Age of Discovery. 
Europeans needed more than ale to fortify them for these earthshaking events.  They took to tea, coffee and chocolate like ducks to watercress.  

Within a half century of landing in Europe — lickety-split as these things go — tea established itself in England.  A 1657 advertisement offers it at Thomas Garraway's coffee house:

“This excellent beverage, recommended by all Chinese doctors, and which the Chinese call ‘Tcha’, other nations ‘Tay’ or ‘Tee’, is on sale at Sultaness Mead close to the Royal Exchange in London.”

Author Real Life aside here:  The fortune cookie I got at lunch today — my fortune cookies keep trying to teach me Chinese, which is kind of them, of course — tells me that 'teapot' is ch'a ha
This is an example of synchronicity. 
It also reminds us that the word for 'tea' or 'chai', like the words for coffee, chocolate, coca cola, television, whiskey and Angelina Jolie, stays about the same all over the world.
Returning to the late Seventeenth Century.

Europe, having got hands on tea, also imported lovely cups to drink tea from.  Meissen and Sèvres started making their own porcelains after the Chinese model — pretty cups, with and without handles, and equally pretty bowl-like saucers for them.    

 Cup and saucer chelsea pottery mid c18 v and a Meissen tea bowl and saucer 1725 Sevres tea cup republican devices 1793 to 1800 v and a

These early Eighteenth Century cups were often on the small side.

This cup, for instance, is only an inch and a half tall.  That's half the size of Late c17 early c18 4 cm by 6 2 cm v and a crop a teacup today.  It holds about a third as much. 

Look at the size of the cups in some of the pictures below.  You'll agree they are relatively itty bitty.

Folks tended to drink tea in a sip or two and get more fresh from the pot which made the whole tea pouring ceremony more lively, I should imagine. 
When Madame de Sévigné writes, "Saw the Princesse de Tarente . . . who takes 12 cups of tea every day," this does not mean the Princesse was just sloshing with tea.

How did people manage these small and handleless cups?  Pre'y much like this:

A-Family-Of-Three-At-Tea,-C.1727 cropped
Man and child drinking tea c1720

The making of tea in the early Eighteenth Century, was a drama enacted at the table with a whole bunch of props.  Let's take a look at a tea set.

Jean liotard still life tea set 1783

Starting on the left-hand side, we have the tea pot.  Below that are our handless cups. 

Notice how they seem to have been doled out on the tray upside down. 
Folks did this.  Presumably an upside down cup was not as apt to fall over during transportation.  And things didn't fall into it.
Or something.

  A-Tea-Party nicolaes verkoljecropped A-Tea-Party nicolaes verkolje recropped

DUMESNIL Pierre Louis Le Jeune le traitant c18 crop Breakfast_in_bed-cassat 1897 cropped

Continuing anit-clockwise around the tea things we come to the cream pitcher.  Above that is the very large sugar bowl.

That is just an amazing amount of sugar, isn't it? 

Two or three forces at work here making the sugar bowl so big.  The first is that sugar was expensive, so this was conspicuously showing off a luxury good.  The second is that sugar lumps had to be 'nipped off' a big, solid cone shape down in the Sugar cone kitchen.  This was time consuming and awkward so you didn't want to do it all that often.  You laid in a supply.  It's a bit like having a big woodpile.  You can't fit all that into the fireplace, but you like it handy.
The third reason for having a big sugar bowl is that every lump was handmade and idiosyncratic.  You wanted a nice choice.  Probably it was a delicate challenge wondering whether the 'two lumps' Aunt Edith wanted were big lumps or small.

The metalwork on top of the sugar bowl is a pair of sugar tongs, the handle to the right.

Center stage on the tray is bread-and-butter, which was what you got fed at tea in the Eighteenth Century.
This is so wrong.  

Moving our consideration back to the sugar bowl and up a bit, we come to the slops bowl, the final resort of all slops, liquid or solid.  There is a robust realism about an age that provides a slops bowl in the tea service.  Since they moved ash trays off restaurant tables there is nothing remotely resembling this in modern eateries.

If we complete our circuit of the tea tray we come at last to the tall thingum behind the tea pot. The tea canister. 

Antique-tea-caddy attrib veronika You must imagine an era so primitive they hadn't invented the tea bag.  The robust flavor of cheap paper not yet added to the tea.  Tea came in what might be considered its pretechnological state — loose dried leaves.  Tea was expensive, so they made pretty and expensive objects to put it in.  Tea caddy v and a staffordshire 1760 to 1770

Tea arrived in 'tea canisters' of ceramic or metal.  Beautiful things.  These early 1700s canisters would be placed in a box, with one side for black tea and one for green and a bowl for Tea chest late c18 v and aTea caddy 1804 v and a measuring and mixing. 

By 1800, this box was called a tea caddy, from the Chinese weight, kati, about six hundred grams, (1-1/3 pounds).  Large ones might be called tea chests.

There is a great deal of poetry and fine sentiment in a chest of tea. 
        Ralph Waldo Emerson

Author real life note here:  I buy a couple sorts of coffee and mix them because it makes me feel powerful and creative.  
In Regency times, tea had become less expensive.  There was no need to keep it in the parlor under the eagle-eye of the lady of the house.  Tea was made in the kitchen and brought up on the tea tray.  The tea caddy, (I've been waiting to say this since I saw it in the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica,) gradually fell into desuetude.

Now we come to some of the English weird about tea.
First off, the English added sugar and milk. 

Here's how I think that happened. 
Like every newly introduced food, tea was regarded with some suspicion.  In the early 1700s it was still treated as a tonic — something likely to be good for you.  Often, tea was what you took with the nice healthful milk you were drinking. 

For instance, Madame de Sévigné writes, "It is true, Madame de Sabliere took tea with her milk; she told me so the other day; but it was from choice of taste,"

Milk or cream took the curse off the medicinal tea, as it were.  One sage remarks,
"Tea drinking is doubtless very proper in such cases, (i.e. bilious cholicks and weak nerves,) and especially by the addition of the milk, which renders it more powerful, in blunting the acid points of the bile."  
Useful to know.

When tea got frivolous and became merely a delightful enjoyment, sugar and milk followed it into its new role.

More English strange ensued. 
They poured the tea into the cup.  
They added cream and sugar. 
Then they poured the tea into the saucer. 
Pouring tea into saucer cropped new

Right.  You didn't necessarily drink out of the cup.  Sometimes you drank it out of the saucer.  You had a 'dish of tea'. 

Here we got a couple of folks drinking tea out of their saucer with the greatest gentility.

FamilyDukePenthièvre drinking chocolate crop Pouring tea into saucer left side crop  

Why did they do this?  Why did they drink tea out of a saucer?
To cool it quickly?  Did the English have less patience than the Chinese? 
These were gentlepersons and they had all the time in the world.

Anyways, at this same time folks were complicatedly pouring tea into tea saucers, the same folks were drinking chocolate and coffee out of cups.
I mean, like . . . why? 

Though I have to say the idea of drinking chocolate out of a tippy, flattish bowl seems fraught with peril and I am glad, for the sake of all those lovely fabrics, that folks did not do this.

Here's my theory.
I think they were predisposed to drink tea out of a 'dish' because of porringers.  
Porringer ca 1680 1700 norfolk house pottery v and a crop Natoire charles joseph petit cgarcon debout buvant louvre crop

A porringer was a bowl sort of affair for dinking broth or caudle or posset.  Posset was a milky drink.  Caudle was a hot drink often given to the sick. 

Here was tea, starting out as a milky medicine or tonic.  Probably the tea 'dish' was seen as equivalent to the porringer.    

There is no trouble so great or grave that cannot be much diminished by a nice cup of tea.
        Bernard-Paul Heroux

 By the mid- to late- Eighteenth Century, tea caught up with its cousins, coffee and chocolate, and graduated to a cup with a handle.  Drinking tea from a 'dish' gradually became old-fashioned and rural and slid slowly down the social scale.  By Victorian times, drinking tea from a saucer was for elderly great Bogdanov a young boy drinking tea c 1900 cropaunts, their fretful little dogs, Eastern Europeans, and sturdy workmen on their Elevenses.

Dickens, writing much later, says:
"And yet the washerwoman looked to her afternoon 'dish of tea,' as something that might make her comfortable after her twelve hours' labour; and balancing her saucer on a tripod of three fingers, breathed a joy beyond utterance as she cooled the draught."

 Coffee stall 3crop

More author real life stuff.  I remember my father pouring hot coffee into his saucer to drink it when he was in a hurry and wanted it to cool off quickly.

Sticking out your pinky when you drink tea had to wait till tea cups acquired a handle, as you will discover if you attempt to drink tea from a handleless cup and simultaneously hold out your pinky. 
(Don't try this at home.) 

AfternoonTeaMaryCassatt 1880 crop As soon as they had a handle to grip onto, folks lifted the pinky up.  Now whether this was done to indicate delicacy or whether it is that one cannot, in a practical way, fit a multitude of fingers onto one little cup, is unclear. 
I have tried pinky up and pinky down and can't really detect a difference in the flavor of the tea.Polite lady drinking tea cropped

Pinkies raised does not seem to have hit coffee drinkers.   Perhaps coffee was considered a more robust drink that had to be kept under firmer control.

  I have not said a word about tea-in-first or milk-in-first.  This is  because I can't get past the 'Why would you add milk?' question.  However, I am of firm opinion in the lemon-slice-before-or-after-the-tea debate. 
The lemon slice is mean to float daintily on top, like the Lady of Shallot, not drown like Ophelia. 


It's always afternoon tea, somewhere.

        Joanna Bourne 


photocredits:  pink flowered tea canister is cc attrib Veronik, sugar cone attrib felix


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What's your favorite tea story or quote?  One commenter will win a copy of Forbidden Rose or the modestly clad trade edition of Spymaster's Lady, your choice.